Appraisal Economics has determined the fair value of an employee stock purchase plan (ESPP), for financial reporting under ASC 718 for a publicly traded real estate investment trust (REIT). The purchase price under the Type B plan was established as a 15 percent discount to the lesser of the stock’s publicly traded price on the grant date and its publicly traded price at the end of the ESPP. The award was economically analogous to a financial instrument known as a “look-back option.” We determined the fair value of the look-back option and, therefore, the ESPP using a synthetic option structure and the Black-Scholes-Merton Model. Our concluded value considered the six-month lock-up that participants were subject to after the end of the ESPP’s term.
Appraisal Economics has determined the fair market value of restricted blockchain tokens that are not yet publicly traded in connection with Section 83(b) of the Internal Revenue Code. The blockchain technology underpins cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Ether, and the recent surge in popularity has resulted in other entities issuing blockchain-based units, often issued as compensation to employees and advisors. As part of our valuation, we reviewed the firm’s white paper, management’s projections, the restricted token award agreement, and the advisor agreement. Then, we analyzed the failure rates of new companies and rates of return by venture capital investors that invest in early-stage, high-risk investments similar to the tokens to determine the probability-weighted expected payoff to a holder of the tokens and a discount rate to account for the time value of money. Our report was used to facilitate a Section 83(b) election for federal income tax purposes.
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Appraisal Economics has determined the fair value of the property and equipment of a large hospital in California for financial reporting under ASC 805. We determined the fair value of the land by conducting a sales comparison analysis. All comparables were verified by several sources, including brokers, municipal officials, tax searches, and real estate commercial services. Buildings and improvements, furniture, fixtures, and equipment were valued using the cost approach. As part of our analysis, we made adjustments to the values of the subject property and equipment to account for their physical depreciation, functional obsolescence, and economic obsolescence.
Appraisal Economics has determined the fair market value of a bundle of intangible rights associated with the publishing of a scholarly journal in the health and medical field. These rights included the limited use of certain intangibles including trademark, subscriber list, and advertiser relationships. We used the income approach to determine the aggregate fair market value of these rights. Key issues included the probable term of the agreement, given the option of extensions, as well as the projected growth in the various revenue streams, in view of the recent historical decline. Another key issue was the tax status of a willing buyer for the rights, as the payment of income taxes would reduce the income derived from the rights and thus the net rate of return to be realized.
Appraisal Economics has completed the valuation of a New Jersey-based commercial real estate development company engaged in construction management and the development of properties for light industrial use, including warehouses, distribution centers, and light manufacturing. The company also provides property management services. We valued the Company using the discounted cash flow method of the income approach and the guideline transaction method of the market approach. A key issue was the determination of a market-based level of owners’ compensation, as the majority owner was significantly under-compensated for the value of his services rendered to the business.
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Appraisal Economics Inc. has determined the fair value of a profits interest in the real estate development of one of the tallest buildings in Manhattan. When completed, the building is projected to be one of the most expensive office towers in the world. Our engagement consisted of analyzing the projected economics of the project, including construction costs, joint venture terms, rental rates and vacancies, future capitalization rates, and myriad other complexities associated with a project of such magnitude. The valuation of this complex security included traditional discounted cash flow analysis and option pricing analysis, based on the terms of the profits interest. We valued the put rights, call rights, and redemption rights inherent in the profits interest. Also included in our analysis was valuation of promote interests embedded in the development project.
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Appraisal Economics has determined the fair market value of minority, non-controlling interests in various companies under common ownership engaged in construction management, construction material manufacture, and construction equipment rental in the Mid-Atlantic region. We determined the business enterprise value and the corresponding equity value of each company using the capitalization of earnings method of the income approach and the guideline transaction method of the market approach. Key issues included normalized levels of contract revenue, given the wide year-to-year fluctuations, as well as appropriate owners’ compensation for each entity, given that each of the owners rendered services in a variety of capacities to all of the companies. As part of our analysis, we made adjustments to the pro rata values of the subject interests to account for their lack of control and lack of marketability.
Appraisal Economics Inc. has valued the intangible assets of a first aid supplies manufacturer that designs, produces, and distributes burn dressings and other wound care products to first responders, militaries, and providers of industrial and consumer first aid kits around the world. The company was acquired by a private equity firm. Products include burn gels, burn dressings, fire blankets, burn care blankets, antiseptic and antibacterial sprays, creams, and ointments, hydrocortisone-based anti-itch products and other related products. Appraisal Economics valued the trademarks, trade names, patents, and unpatented proprietary technology and manufacturing processes. Typically, customer-related assets are recognized and valued separate from goodwill; however, the company has elected the private company alternative under Accounting Standards Update No. 2014–18.
Appraisal Economics Inc. has tested for, and determined the amount of, goodwill impairment for each reporting unit of a publicly traded company for ASC 350. We considered the market capitalization of the common equity. We also valued the preferred equity held by a private equity fund, which included a liquidation preference and a conversion feature. We performed a discounted cash flow analysis for each reporting unit and the publicly traded parent company. Once we concluded the fair value of each reporting unit, we compared each reporting unit’s fair value to its book value. For the reporting unit that we determined was impaired, we appraised and subtracted the fair value of these assets from its enterprise value. The difference is the fair value of goodwill, and the amount by which the goodwill’s fair value was less than its carrying value was the amount of goodwill impairment.
With the issuance of Accounting Standards Update 2017–04 in January 2017, as early as January 2017 and no later than 2020, “Step 2” has been eliminated and goodwill impairment will be calculated as the excess of the reporting unit’s carrying value over the reporting unit’s fair value. This eliminates the need to value all of the company’s assets as though there were a business combination on the testing date, reducing the complexity and compliance costs associated with ASC 350.
Appraisal Economics Inc. has valued a globally recognized premium paper manufacturer. The company produces and distributes coated and uncoated paper products that are used for stationary, photo books, and high-end brochures and catalogues. The company has produced the official stationary used by several U.S. Presidents, the White House, and the Department of Defense, which awards paper certificates in conjunction with military honors including the Congressional Medal of Honor. We determined the business enterprise value of the company using the discounted cash flow method of the income approach and the guideline transaction and guideline company methods of the market approach. Then, using various quantitative methods, we determined appropriate discounts for lack of control and lack of marketability and applied these discounts to the company’s per share value. The results of our analysis were used for estate planning purposes.